Genetic Diseases are prevalent amid populations in the Middle East. In general, genetic disease or disorder happens due to the changes or mutation in an individual’s DNA and genetic disorders may be inherited which is transmitted from the parents’ genes. A change is an alteration in the DNA sequence that forms a gene. When a gene is changed or mutated, its protein stuff can no longer perform its usual function and it eventually can result in a disorder.
Genetic disorders can happen in consequence of the abnormalities in the genetic material included in our cells. A few of these genetic abnormalities can cause cancer and also various other health conditions.
Genetic diseases can be innate since they are changes in the germ cells of the body. Genetic diseases can stem from alterations in DNA in somatic cells, or cells in human body that are not germ cells. A lot of genetic disorders are multi-factorial because they are stemmed from changes in a number of genes mixed by environmental aspects. A few cases of these include heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.
Genetic disorders are generally placed into three categories such as:
(1). Monogenetic disorders. It includes sickle cell disease, alcoholism, obesity, mental illness, Alzheimer’s disease, cystic fibrosis, polycystic kidney disease, and Tay-Sachs disease.
(2). Multi-factorial inheritance disorders: Heart disease, diabetes, and most cancers are instances of such disorders.
(3). Chromosome disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome, certain types of blood cancer (chronic myeloid leukemia, CML) may be caused by Chromosome disorders.
Common Genetic Diseases in Arab countries
Some of the studies point out Arab countries has the highest rates of genetic disorders in the world. It is said that around 906 pathologies are widespread in Arab countries, including thalassaemia, Tourette’s syndrome, Wilson’s disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and Niemann-Pick disease. A few of the genetic disorders common in the Arab world include sickle cell anemia, hemoglobinopathy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Most of these are inherited genetic condition with serious outcomes.
It is considered that that congenital and genetic disorder is in charge for a foremost amount of infant mortality, morbidity, and handicap in Arab countries. Some sort of genetic disorders are common right through the Arab world and some of them are haemoglobinopathies, dissimilar congenital malformations stemmed from recessive genes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and quite a few metabolic disorders. Genetic services differ in degree and treatment in diverse Arab countries. However, it generally lingers unreliable, discerning, and derisory.
How to cope with Common Genetic Diseases in Arab countries
The genetic disorders or diseases have geographical circulation amid Arab countries. The countries such as Syria, Gulf States, Yemen, Western block including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, etc faces geographical circulation of genetic disorders or diseases.
The main reason is the controlled marriages to each block or even to one country. Besides, cousin marriages or the marriages between relatives and endogamy of marriages limited to marginal sectors make worse the problem. Distancing of marriages from remote gene people helps to solve the crisis in Arabic countries. So, reducing cousin marriages or the marriages between relatives is one of the solutions apply to reduce genetic disorder in Arab countries.
Studies show that the majority of Arab genetic disorders are Autosomal-recessive. An autosomal recessive disorder indicates two copies of an irregular gene must be present for the disease or trait to occur. So, avoiding or controlling marriages from same sect endogamy, or same tribe or even from same country will help Arab population to escape from genetic disorders. Making available superior coverage of primary healthcare systems in Arab countries, offering effective awareness and community genetic services that consist of screening programs has to be made stronger in order to deal with the endemic Arab genetic disorders.
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