What do you know about Diabetes Mellitus? Do you know that it is a rare cause of sudden death? Today we would look at the general outlook of diabetes as an introduction to series of posts we would be having on Diabetes Mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is impaired insulin secretion and variable degrees of peripheral insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia. Early symptoms are related to hyperglycemia and include polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and blurred vision. Later complications include vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and predisposition to infection. Diagnosis is by measuring plasma glucose. Treatment is diet, exercise, and drugs that reduce glucose levels, including insulin and oral antihyperglycemic drugs. Complications can be delayed or prevented with adequate glycemic control; heart disease remains the leading cause of mortality in DM.
There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Below is a table stating notable differences between them. It is important that we know about this condition as it is one of the frequent systemic illness we find in our world today.
General Characteristics of Types 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitu
Age at onset
Most commonly<30 yr
Most commonly>30 yr
Propensity to ketoacidosis requiringinsulin treatment for control
Plasma levels of endogenousinsulin
Extremely low to undetectable
Variable; may be low, normal, or elevated depending on degree ofinsulin resistance andinsulin secretory defect
Associated with specific HLA-D antigens
Pancreatic autoantibodies at diagnosis
Yes, but may be absent
Insulitis, selective loss of mostβcells
Smaller, normal-appearing islets; amyloid (amylin) deposition common
Prone to develop diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease)
Hyperglycemia responds to oral antihyperglycemic drugs
Yes, initially in many patients